Friday, January 25, 2008

History of Nepal

History of Nepal starts with the first civilizations of Nepal which occurred around 6th century before christ when the Kantipur valley got it’s image as a valley from a great lake. The creation of Kathmandu valley has it’s own history depending upon the people. Kathmandu was once a lake and at around the age of Goutam Buddha, Bodhisattva Manjusri cut a gorge in a southern hill, the hill’s gorge is famous with it’s name Chovar these days, he drained water to worship a lotus that he admired during his travel. Rulers of this country largely adverted hinduism before the reign of Buddha, with a high influence of south neighbour India. The accurate area of this country was not clear until the reign of Malla kings in Nepal eventhough there were many kings reigning in this country. From the thirteen to eighteen century where there was reign of Mallas’ here, the approximate dimension of this country was made over.
In the eighteen century, king of small kingdom of Nepal, Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered many countries from the small scattered kingdoms inside the country. The small kingdoms were called “Baisee” and “Choubisee” kingdoms. His followers and successors later flated the country area from Sikkim in the east and Kangada, Kashmir in the west. After a commercial assingment was signed with the current overrulers from Britain in India, Nepal lost its part of Sikkim.
In 1846, the power of rule was overtaken by Janga Bahadur Rana by arranging a war So- Called Kotparba and the Rana family reign in this country was started. The ruled over this country for a century and four years, and in 1951, King Trivuwan tok back all the lost power through a demonstration of Nepali civilians that time. He proclaimed Nepal as constitional Monarchy kingdom and after Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah dev became king of Nepal, he again took the power temporarily banning the Multi-party system and started the “Panchayeti” system, where there were five people in the ruling power in every sector. Birendra Bir Bikram Shah dev was in the throne after King Mahendra surprisingly died in Chitwan in 1972.
In 1990, Nepali civilian along with the Political parties went on roads to shoe favour to Multi-party system and King Birendra had to lift the bann over the political parties, helding an election with the victory of Nepali congress party to win the election whereas, the communist were stronger too.
In 1991, a troop of communist led by Dr. Baburam Bhattarai from Gorkha and Puspa Kamal Dahal from Chitwan started insurgency so-called “Jana Bidroha” based on five main districts; Rukum, Rolpa, Sindhuli, Jajarkot and Gorkha to replace the parliamentary monarchy by so-called people's new democratic republic. The Maoists also declared existence of a provisional "people's government" at the district level in several locations from the east to west Nepal.
On June 1, 2001, a shot to King birendra and his five family members took them dead; which later was told that Prince Dipendra shot his family dead; and all that time royal family were replaced by today’s. Gyanendra bir bikram shas dev was crowned to be the king then.
In october 2002, King Gyanendra dismissed the government, calling it corrupt and ineffective to overcome the political problems. The then king declared the country an emergency and ordered the army to attack the maoists. The rebels intensified their campaign, and the government responded with equal intensity, killing hundreds of Maoists, the largest toll since the insurgency began in 1996. In 2003, the Maoist rebels withdrew from peace talks with the government and ended a cease-fire that had been signed 7 months ago. The Maoists blocked Kathmandu valley to threaten the government in August 2004 stopping the shipment to enter Kathmandu.
In 2005, King Gyanendra fired the government that time and claimed himself the President of the government keeping some others in the government as minister. Almost all known politicians were kept in home arrest and several restriction on civil liberties were instituted. In late 2005, the maoist rebels declared cease-fire ending in early 2006 in around 4 months. After breaking the cease-fire in january they again came hand by hand with the seven party alliance to pressure King gyanendra to re-establish the parliament and redrafting the constution ignoring the offer by then king to handover the executive power to Prime minister. Mounting pressure with demonstration of more than 20 days, then king had to agree to reinstate the parliament which turned to be the power cutter of king to establish the country people’s republic.
The then called rebels and governent had peace talk agreeing a landmark peace in november 2006, and announced the civil war that troubled the country for more than ten years killling more then 12000 Nepal people. The maoists then joined the Interim government wishing to proclaim the country peoples republic.

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